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“Here Is How to Decide How Much Screen Time to Give Kids” plus 2 more Health – TIME

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“Here Is How to Decide How Much Screen Time to Give Kids” plus 2 more Health – TIME


Here Is How to Decide How Much Screen Time to Give Kids

Posted: 21 Oct 2016 01:52 PM PDT

The good news is that the American Academy of Pediatrics has finally updated its recommendations on how much time kids should spend on screens to reflect the new role that digital devices play in family lives.

The bad news is what its new guidelines say, which is: it depends. It depends on whether you participate in screen-watching with your kids, how much you can monitor them, whether you’re on a plane or your kid is sick, whether you can make sure they only watch high-quality content and if your kid is more independent or more obedient by nature. In short, the bad news is that the new guidelines mean parents have yet more work to do.

It’s tempting to say “Hey, AAP, thanks for the assist! We’ve got all time in the world to think about this.”

After all, screens are one of the biggest bugbears of modern western parenting. They’re almost unavoidable, they’re something our parents didn’t have to deal with in quite the same way and nobody yet has good data on how much screen-watching is too much in the long run. All of that makes parents anxious, especially as obesity rates head north and ADHD diagnoses follow.

As Ingrid Simone, executive editor of Toca Boca, a creator of apps for kids, puts it: “Kids today have more media options than ever, and it can be challenging for parents to figure out what’s right for their family. The new guidelines do a better job taking into account how much the landscape has changed for kids and media over the last decade.”

But to accommodate the fact that no one set of guidelines fits all, the Academy created an online tool for formulating a plan so that parents and kids can figure out what works best for them.

The online planner is actually probably more useful than one set of strict rules, because it’s age-sensitive, and it covers all sorts of issues that parents might not have thought of on their own, such as are there areas of the house where we don’t want screens? Are there certain times or curfews for screen use? What content is generally allowed always and what just occasionally? The web planner can be used, in discussion with kids, to come to some agreements before getting kids a phone or signing a new data contract, so that everyone is on the same page.

It takes parents step by step through the kids of things they need to discuss with their kids, like digital safety and how to be a good digital citizen.

It’s probably less useful for kids under 5 years old, however, so here’s a super quick rundown of the new guidelines:

  • Avoid screens (except video-chatting) in children younger than 18 months.

  • For children ages 18 to 24 months of age, find non-garbage content (hint: no Ryan ToysReview) and participate in it with your kids

  • Don’t worry about your kid not having tech skills; they will come fast

  • Limit kids 2 to 5 years old to 1 hour per day of good programming, watch along, and talk to them about it.

  • Kids won’t understand stuff that moves too fast and apps with lots of distracting interruptions are best avoided, as is any violent content.

  • Turn off all devices when not in use.

  • Avoid using media as a pacifier. “Although there are intermittent times (eg, medical procedures, airplane flights) when media is useful as a soothing strategy, there is concern that using media as strategy to calm could lead to problems with limit setting or the inability of children to develop their own emotion regulation,” says the AAP.

  • Keep an eye on what they’re watching or using, try it yourself, talk to them about it.

  • No screens in bedroom, at the meal table or while you’re playing with them. Just go ahead and use the do not disturb option on your own phone.

  • Because screens interfere with sleep, no screens for an before bedtime, and keep them somewhere other than the bedroom overnight.

Critics are cautiously praising the Academy’s move as more accurately reflecting the world that most families live in. “The focus on balance and high quality content takes into account the extensive social science,” says Yalda T. Uhls, author of Media Moms & Digital Dads, whose only criticism was that the allowance for really young kids for “video-chatting” was confusing. Do people understand the difference between that and YouTube? “The most relevant question for [all parents] is how you interact with the media you consume.”

7 Female Doctors Speak Out About Racism and Sexism During Airplane Emergencies

Posted: 21 Oct 2016 01:25 PM PDT

Dr. Tamika Cross made headlines when she posted a troubling airplane encounter in a Facebook post: that she, a young black doctor, was turned away when she tried to provide medical care to a sick passenger.

“Oh no sweetie put [your] hand down, we are looking for actual physicians or nurses or some type of medical personnel,” Cross recalled a flight attendant telling her, before asking her for credentials and accepting help from a white physician. “Whether this was race, age, gender discrimination, it’s not right.”

She’s far from the only one. As Cross’s story went viral, more female doctors—many whom are women of color—shared stories of their own. “I identified myself as a physician and was pushed out of the way and told to step aside for a male RN to tend to the passenger,” wrote Dr. Amina Moghul, a doctor practicing family medicine. “I thought it was just me that had experienced this.”

Dr. Pamela Wible, a family physician (who herself has assisted in two in-air medical emergencies) began collecting stories like these. After posting about Cross’s experience, 50 female physicians messaged Wible with their own experiences. “I’m hearing from people who have airline stories, stories from motor vehicle accidents, stories from football fields, where the umpire didn’t believe a woman when she said she was a doctor,” Wible says. Sometimes, says Wible, dark-skinned women aren’t even recognized as doctors within their own hospitals, even when they’re wearing a white coat. “It’s our culture.”

Part of the challenge: only 2% of physicians in the U.S. are black women. “I have interviewed dozens of black women doctors,” wrote Crystal Emery, director of a new documentary called Black Women in Medicine, in a recent op-ed for TIME. “Time and time again they would share with me stories about how they were mistaken for home health aides or dietitians. People refused to believe a black woman could be a physician.”

Below are the stories from seven female physicians who say they experienced in-flight discrimination.

What the New Screen Time Guidelines For Kids Really Mean

Posted: 21 Oct 2016 11:54 AM PDT

Today the American Academy of Pediatrics announced new screen time guidelines for children, and they come with some surprising changes.

Broken up into separate recommendations for very young kids and those 5 or older, the new guidelines dispense with a lot of the old “less is more” approach to screens, and instead focus on a more nuanced approach to kids and their time spent with computers, TVs and other digital devices.

“You’ll notice a move away from the idea that you can lump all screen-time together and label it fun or educational or harmful,” says Dr. David Hill, a pediatrician and chair of the AAP’s Council on Communications and Media. “The ways we interact with screens today are so varied that it doesn’t make sense anymore to start a stopwatch and say, ‘At this point, you’re done.’”

Spending time video-chatting with a parent who’s deployed overseas or out of town on business is clearly not in the same category as time spent watching something sexually explicit without a parent’s supervision, Hill says. “We have to judge the quality of these different digital experiences and weight them accordingly.”

The AAP also decided to scrap its “no screen time before age two” advice. But that doesn’t mean infants and toddlers should be spending time in front of the television or playing with tablets or smartphones, Hill says. “At that age, any learning is dependent on interacting with other humans,” he explains. “So even if an infant is interested in the screen and its lights and colors, the research we have to date suggests they can’t imbue these images with any meaning, and so it doesn’t seem to offer any benefit.” For children 18 months or younger, the new guidelines say the only acceptable screen time involves video chatting.

Beyond 18 months and up to age 5, the AAP recommends limiting screen-based media use to one hour of “high quality” programming a day. For preschoolers and preteens, Hill says there’s good research going back decades to suggest kids really can learn from “well-constructed” educational programs. (Think Sesame Street or Daniel Tiger.) “But even then, it’s better to have a parent involved and reinforcing what’s on the screen,” he says. For example, if your daughter is watching a video about colors, you could watch with her and point around the room at examples of red or blue or yellow objects. “This sort of parent participation and reinforcement makes a big difference when it comes to how much young children take away from these programs,” he says.

Hill reiterates that one of the challenges in releasing new screen advice for parents is that much of the existing research is “sketchy.” Internet-connected smartphones have been popular for roughly a decade, and tablets are an even newer addition to our households. It’s tough to say how spending time with these devices and their content, however educational, could affect a young brain’s emotional and cognitive development. “We see parents who are very proud of children who can tap on apps and interact with the screen, but so far these swiping and tapping skills don’t seem to translate to much else,” he says. “Being able to do those things at an early age doesn’t mean your child is prepared to program computers one day.”

What is clear is that time spent engaged with parents and adults is crucial for kids’ emotional and cognitive development. Simply watching a parent cook dinner or clean the house—especially if the parent is explaining to the child what he’s doing and why—can be powerful, Hill says. From boosting your child’s vocabulary to helping form his ability to read faces and emotions, this sort of interaction is crucial.

For older kids—those in elementary school and middle school—Hill says a parent’s big focus should be on monitoring what kids are viewing. “As children get older, we know whatever media you put in front of them or allow them to be exposed to, they will learn from,” he explains. “So you need to pay attention to whether the content is violent or sexual or explicit, and decide what’s appropriate.”

Unfortunately, when it comes to some of the biggest questions confronting parents of tweens and teens—the age at which it’s cool for a kid to have a smartphone, or to use social media—the existing evidence is spotty.

Hill says he doesn’t foresee the AAP offering advice on when to let a child have a smartphone. In terms of social media, he says, “we find that kids who use very little or a whole lot of social media seem to have more issues like anxiety and depression. So there may be some kind of Goldilocks effect, or a place where some amount can serve a healthy role. But we need more research.”

Of course, what may be harmless or even healthy for one teen may turn out to be too much to handle for another. Parents still need to make judgment calls based on what they know about their kids. They also need to practice and enforce healthy device behaviors. “There are times every day when we need to put down our phones and talk to our kids,” Hill explains. He says turning off screens at bedtime and at mealtimes is always a good idea. “This can be as difficult for parents as it is for the kids, but it’s better for everyone.”

As a parent, modeling correct behavior extends to how you interact with people online. “If your kids see you insulting someone or being a troll on social media, they’re going to do likewise,” he says. “In many ways, the Internet is like a small town, and what you do will come back to you.”

In the end, the fundamentals of being a good parent and a good human being don’t change. “Time spent in front of screens or devices isn’t inherently good or bad,” Hill says. “Like everything else, it’s really about the content and how you engage with it—and setting limits around it—that matters.”

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